A Study from the Vinegar Fermentation1

March 18, 2013


1 A scientific conventional paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in HNF 12 laboratory, 2nd search engine marketing., 2012-2013.


1 . To enumerate the principle and methods in fermentation; and 2 . to spot the elements that impact the efficiency of fermentation.


Vinegar have been traditionally used as a meals preservative. White vinegar retards microbial growth and contributes sensory properties to a number of foods. The wide diversity of goods containing white vinegar (sauces, ketchup, mayonnaise, and so forth ) and the current along with wine usage have favored an increase in white vinegar production (De Ory ain al 2002).

Acetic acid is a predominant flavor and anti-bacterial component in vinegar. White vinegar bacteria, also called acetic acid bacterias, are members of the genus Acetobacter and characterized by their particular ability to convert ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH, in acetic acid, CH3CO2H, by oxidation process as shown below;

Anaerobic Aerobic


Most bacterias strains produced from vinegar industries are able to oxidize acetic acid to CO2 and H2O (over-oxidation) and therefore are classified in the genus Acetobacter (De Ley ain al 1984).

Acetic acid is created in a four-step reaction concerning conversion of starch to sugar by simply amylases, anaerobic conversion of sugars to ethanol simply by yeast fermentation, conversion of ethanol to hydrated acetaldehyde, and dehydrogenation to acetic acid by aldehyde dehydrogenase (Nichol 1979; Canning 1985). The very last two measures are performed aerobically with acetic acid creating bacteria.

Acetic acid fermentation is done in a sugary medium. It is involves the fermentation of alcohol substrate to acetic acid by simply aceti bacter or white vinegar bacteria.

BFAD defines that vinegar should contain 4% acetic acid stated as lactic acid.

Two common market forms of vinegar includes...

Reported: De Leon, S. Con, Chavez T. L, Claudio, V. T. and Matilde P. Guzman. Basic Foods for Filipinos. 3rd

edition. Thailand: Merriam & Webster Bookstore.

http://nordicfoodlab.org/blog/2012/03/acetic-fermentation-vinegar. Reached March 10, 2013.

http://www.tempeh.info/fermentation/acetic-acid-fermentation.php. Accessed 03 10, 2013.



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