Oxidation of Alcohols

Preparing of Adipic Acid

Intro:

Oxidation process of an organic compound commonly involves possibly increasing their oxygen content or decreasing its hydrogen content. The most common oxidizing providers are potassium permanganate KMnO4 and chromic acid H2CrO4. Primary alcohols are oxidized initially to aldehydes in that case further to carboxylic stomach acids. Secondary alcohols are oxidized to ketones and oxidation of the two primary and secondary alcohols with chromic acid arises by way of the chromate ester because shown listed below: [pic]

Tertiary alcohols resist oxidation process under mild conditions because they lack a hydrogen atom mounted on the carbinol carbon. Chromic acid can easily therefore differentiate tertiary alcohols from primary and extra ones. Under is the basic equation to get the oxidation process of a second alcohol employing potassium dichromate in acidity:

[pic]

Under even more drastic circumstances, both secondary and tertiary alcohols experience oxidative cleavage of C-C bonds to offer carboxylic acids. Cyclohexanone is a secondary liquor which may be oxidized with chromic acid to cyclohexanone. Even more drastic oxidation (higher attentiveness of dichromate and higher temperature) converts cyclohexanone to adipic acidity, a diacid with the same number of co2 atoms as that in cyclohexanol. Adipic acid is an important industrial chemical substance which is used inside the synthesis of polymers.

Experimental:

[pic]

1- Prepare the oxidant as follows:

Break down 8 g of salt dichromate dihydrate in 15 mL water in a 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Awesome the causing solution in an ice-bath and slowly add 5 mL of concentrated sulfuric acidity with constant stirring. 2- In a two hundred fifity mL Erlenmeyer flask, bring in 15 cubic centimeters of drinking water, and gradually add your five mL of concentrated sulfuric acid. Awesome in ice and add, in portions, 2 mL (0. 019 mol) of cyclohexanol with stirring. 3- Eliminate the cyclohexanol remedy from the ice bath and begin the oxidation by adding some of the...

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