Eliminating River Blindness in Republic of ecuador

You observe a determine sitting on the porch in the North-Western place of Ecuador. As you approach it appears to be an elderly person but as you approach him you notice that he has features you have never seen before. His skin looks as if it is often draped upon his bone frame creating him to reduce all age indicators. The eyes reach his and he will not make eye contact, a indication that he is blind. You approach the lizard man and have his age group, he responds " Cuarenta y 3. ” You wonder to yourself how could a man who is 43 years of age have lost his vision and aged and so prematurely? The simple answer is Onchocerciasis or more commonly known as Lake Blindness.

Desowitz (1981) examines the history, triggers, and feasible treatments of River Blindness in his book " Fresh Guinea Tapeworms and Judaism Grandmothers. Reports of Parasitic organisms and People. ” Desowitz primarily focuses on river blindness through Africa yet discusses just how this life-altering parasite was brought to Latin America and where it is prevalent.

Desowitz (1981, p. 92) states that river loss of sight was first brought to America in two dunes. The first wave is at 1590 when ever slaves by West Africa were delivered to Columbia and Venezuela intended for gold exploration. The second took place when Napoleon III sent Sudanese troops to Oaxaca (a express in The southern part of Mexico) in 1862 to aid French makes fighting in the region. Over several centuries afterwards, according to the Carter Center's web page for the Onchocerciasis Eradication Program of the Americas (2008), " inside the Americas, five-hundred, 000 people are at risk for river loss of sight, and 180, 000 are infected in endemic nations. ”

River Blindness is prevalent in six Latin American countries: Venezuela, Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and South america, and influences rural cowboys who tend not to travel usually. Foci, the center for primary disease activity, exist in Mexico and Guatemalan highlands that are at an elevation among 1, 600 and a few, 000ft and areas on the banks of organically rich water resources. These areas are usually situated on or near coffee farms causing 30-75% of the employees to become contaminated with the disease and make it back to their communities (Desowitz 1981, s. 93). The illness affects Ecuadorians and Columbians living by simply rivers' shores. In Brazil and Venezuela the nomadic Yanomami inhabitants (a group who hunts and travels throughout the Amazon Rainforest), is one of the most seriously affected foule due to the fact that they may be at continuous risk for exposure to the vector of the lake blindness parasite (The Carter Center, 2008). The Pesky Filarial Worm Known as Onchocerca Volvulus

Onchocerca Volvulus is definitely the first cousin to the parasite that causes Elephantiasis a disease that creates the thickening of the epidermis and fundamental tissues of the human. The parasite (Onchocerca volvulus) is the cause of riv blindness which is classified being a filarial nematode, shown in Figure 1 . This type of vermine is an invertebrate animal more commonly termed as a roundworm. The roundworms intestinal tract makes it diverse from other invertebrates such as cnidarians or flatworms. Figure One: Onchocerca volvulus (adult worms)

Opperdoes (2002)

The adult earthworms are threadlike creatures that live within fibrous nodules beneath the human owners skin upon boney areas such as hip bones and knee shelves. Female mature worms will produce over two, 000 microfilariae (eggs) every day for its life expectancy of 15-20 years. The eggs made by the adult female earthworm hatch within its uterus and spread throughout the hosts skin once released. This dispersal causes the disastrous side affects of riv blindness. But before the worm can begin to consider its cost on the body of a human, it must adult within it is vector the Simulium damnosum, the dark-colored fly (Desowitz 1981, l. 93). Simulium damnosum: The Vector

Desowitz (1981, p. 97) states the fact that black take flight is highly picky in choosing where it can breed and lay its eggs. This kind of...


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