п»їCOMPILER CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION:

Writing a computer is tedious and time consuming task. There are some specific tools pertaining to helping in implementation of various phases of compilers. These tools are called compiler construction tools. These tools are usually called compiler-compiler, compiler-generator, or perhaps translator publishing system.

TOOLS PERTAINING TO COMPILER:

Lex

Flex lexical Analyser

Quex

Ragel

Yacc

Antlr

LEX:

LexВ is aВ computer programВ that generatesВ lexical analyzersВ (" scanners" or " lexers" ). Lex is commonly combined with theВ yaccВ parser electrical generator. Lex, formerly written byВ Mike LeskВ andВ Eric SchmidtВ and described in 1975, В is the standardВ lexical analyzergenerator about manyВ UnixВ systems, and an equivalent device is specific as part of theВ POSIXВ standard. The composition of a Lex file is definitely intentionally similar to that of a yacc file; files happen to be divided into three sections, separated by lines that contain simply two percent signs, the following: Definition section

%%

Rules section

%%

TheВ definitionВ section definesВ macrosВ and importsВ header filesВ written inВ C. Additionally it is possible to write any C code in this article, which will be duplicated verbatim in the generated supply file. TheВ rulesВ section associatesВ regular expressionВ patterns with CВ statements. When the lexer sees textual content in the type matching a given pattern, it can execute the associated C code. TheВ C codeВ section contains C assertions andВ functionsВ that are copied verbatim to the made source record. These statements presumably contain code called by rules inside the rules section. In large programs it really is more convenient to set this code in a separate file associated in atВ compileВ time.

FLEX:

FlexВ (fastВ lexical analyzerВ generator) is aВ free softwareВ alternative toВ lex. В It is definitely aВ computer programВ that generatesВ lexical analyzers(" scanners" or " lexers" ). В It is frequently combined with the freeВ BisonВ parser generator. Unlike Bison, flex is not really part of theВ GNU Project.

TIME DIFFICULTY:

A Flex lexical analyzer usually offers time complexityВ В in the length of the input. That is certainly, it executes a constant range of operations for each and every input sign. This constant is quite low: В GCCВ generates 12 instructions intended for the DFA match cycle. Note that the is independent of the length of the token, the length of the regular expression plus the size of the DFA. Yet , one recommended feature of Flex can cause Flex to have a scanner with non-linear overall performance: The use of the DENY macro within a scanner together with the potential to meet extremely extended tokens. In cases like this, the programmer has explicitly told contract to " go back and try again" after it has already matched some insight. This will cause the DFA to backtrack to find additional accept says. The DENY feature is not empowered by default, and because of their performance implications its 2 discouraged in the Flex manual.

REENTRANCY:

By default the scanner generated by Flex is notВ reentrant. This can cause serious challenges for applications that use the generated scanning device from diverse threads. To overcome this problem there are choices that Bend provides to be able to achieve reentrancy. A detailed information of these choices can be found in the Flex manual.

UTILIZATION UNDER NON-UNIX ENVIRONMENTS:

Normally the made scanner is made up of references toВ unistd. hВ header record which isВ UnixВ specific. To avoid creating code that includesВ unistd. h, В %option nounistdВ should be used. One more issue is a call toВ isattyВ (a Unix catalogue function), which can be found in the produced code. TheВ %option never-interactiveВ forces flex to generate code that doesn't useВ isatty. These alternatives are thorough in the Flex manual.[9]

APPLYING FLEX FROM THE OTHER LANGUAGES:

Flex can only create code forВ CВ andВ C++. To use the scanner code generated simply by flex from the other languages aВ language bindingВ tool this kind of asВ SWIGВ can be taken.

FLEX++:

A similar lexical scanner forВ C++В isВ flex++, which can be...

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